The grape is a fruit from the vine plant, a family of the Vitaceae, and part of the genus Vitis. The cultivation of the grape can group into six up to 300 fruits per bunch. Their colors can be green, black, pink, purple, brown, white, and orange; the latter will cause the change of genes. In this article, we will know how to plant grapes.
It is known that the grapes that have been produced around the world are used in approximately 80% for the production of wines and alcoholic beverages, 10% for its use as fresh fruit, 5% for the manufacture of raisins, and 5% for the juice production.
Contents of the Article
Vine Varieties Can Classify into Four Groups:
- Rustic vector: They are also called typical grapes and are characterized by more excellent resistance to certain diseases and easier to perform certain cultural practices. These fruits can be easily separated from the peel, being very useful to be consumed naturally. Its uses for industrial purposes, such as wines, juices, alcoholic beverages, vinegar, and jam. The main varieties are Rosada Falls, Blanca Cataratas, Magdalena, and Elizabeth, among others.
- Exemplary Vector: This grape cultivation is of high quality, favoring its natural consumption even more. This fruit is part of the Vitis vinifera species, besides being extremely sensitive to fungal diseases. Among the main varieties, we can mention Italy, Ruby, Benitaka, Brazil, Red Globe, Piratininga, and Ribier.
- Without seeds: These do not have seeds or only have some traces of germs. This forms part of the Vitis vinifera species or its hybrids with other species. Among its main varieties, we can mention Perlette, Centennial, and Thompson Seedless.
- Wine Grapes: These are the raw material for producing high-quality wines due to the accumulation of sugar that berries possess. They usually make up of European species. The main varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Tannat, Malbec, Nebbiolo, Carmenere, Sauvignon Blanc, Zinfandel, among others.
Tips to Keep in Mind About How to Plant Grapes
When to Sow Grapes
The grape plant is considered a temperate climate crop; however, the vine can adapt to a wide variety of climates. We offer a better development in Mediterranean temperatures with dry and hot summers and cold and rainy winters.
Another important factor in planting grapes is light. It can significantly affect the production and accumulation of sugars, which is why a high brightness during the growing season considerably improves the quality of the berry.
The temperature is another critical factor in plant grapes since an optimal temperature range (15 to 30 ° C) promotes optimal growth. This influences photosynthesis and its productivity and the phenological cycle (days between flowering and harvest).
If it is a region with a higher average temperature, it will allow much earlier production, allowing us to control the water supply better.
Another point to keep in mind about how to plant grapes is that this plant requires a period of hibernal rest for the correct development of the buds, vigorous vegetative growth, and good fruiting. This period induces by low temperatures and subtropical drought in semi-arid tropical regions.
You should also avoid putting the plant in places where it exposes to solid winds or otherwise uses a barrier to control the wind.
Land to be Used In the Cultivation of Grapes
The texture of the terrain must be sandy loam, relatively fertile, and with good drainage, the optimum pH being an interval between 6 to 7.5, with slopes of less than 20%.
Keep in mind that when it comes to how to plant grapes, the soil properties become more important than their fertility since you can fertilize the soil to meet the nutritional needs of the vineyard.
One tip on how to plant grapes is to choose a light, deep soil without large rocks and waterproof clay layers with good drainage.
Watering the Grape Plant
When it comes to how to plant grapes, their water needs vary depending on the stage they are going through since sprouting. They require 15 mm, in flowering 10 mm (a greater quantity could be harmful). The fruit is setting about 60 to 120 mm. In the ripening, about 80 to 100 mm and finally in the vintage or harvest should not exceed 40 mm, being in this season, you should avoid the rain as it could harm the production.
Steps to Follow on How to Plant Grapes
An important step on how to sow grapes is the choice of the variety; I recommend you to visit the garden center closest to your town and ask for a combination that adapts to the climatic conditions since there are many vine varieties. In addition to climate, it is also essential to ask about their resistance to diseases. If you want to plant it in pots, you can ask about the grape cultivation ‘Pixie’ since its size is very well suited to a pot.
To begin how to sow grapes, you must clean the land, eliminating all traces of previous vegetables and stones. Subsequently, we must perform deep work in the soil, being the ideal 40 to 80 cm to compact the soil facilitating the plant’s growth.
Later we will put tutors to grow appropriately, and finally, holes make to introduce the plants to cover them and water them later.
The vine plant requires support to grow properly. If you choose to grow grapes in pots, you can opt for a lightweight lattice, either wood or plastic.
The grape cultivation grows very long, the reason for which you must use a pergola or gazebo as a structure. But this is not the only technique of entanglement. You can, for example, use a stake as a ventilation lattice. You can also support the vine plant with a stake with the umbrella method. However, if you want to plant grapes in pots, the standard form of the lattice is an easy and straightforward way to do it.
Cultivation of the Grape in Pots
In case you want to know how to plant grapes in pots, you should bear in mind that the container must be large and resistant so that it can support a vigorous vine plant. The requirements are that the pot is from 56 to 75 liters, with at least 40 to 45 cm deep and 45 to 60 cm wide. It would help if you started with a small pot and later transplant until you reach the enormous container.
Care of the Grape
It should be periodically placed compost or mature manure. During the first year in the summer and spring seasons, you can apply fertilizer of general use to the plant. Beginning the following year, you should start to fertilize the grape crop with a fertilizer low in nitrogen but with a higher content of potassium and phosphorus when spring begins, and you can see the first flower buds.
It would help if you took care of eliminating the weeds that compete for resources.
When the vine plant is still young, prune the first time to give it the desired shape; this can change according to the region and the grape variety. There are many types of pruning, which depend on chosen structure. You have to prune usually during the first 3 to 4 years in the winter and spring season.
You have to prune after the plant has acquired the desired shape to control its growth. Eta is done by choosing those branches and buds in poor condition and sprouting each year to allow the grapes to enjoy more excellent sunlight and ventilation. By performing this pruning, we will be increasing its quality and resistance to pests.
Harvesting begins after 2 to 3 years of age. In general, the grapes mature between August and October. However, this depends a lot on the variety and climate where you planted it.
One way to know if they are ready for harvest is to taste the grapes. In case it has a sweet and pleasant taste, it is time to start the harvest. Otherwise, you can leave for a few days. Another way to observe the maturation of the grapes is counting 1 to 3 weeks after they change color; this time depends a lot on the variety and climate. However, the taste is everything; if you love the taste, it’s harvest time.